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Summary: We consider the problem of matching a set of medical students to a set of medical residency positions (hospitals) under the assumption that hospitals' preferences over groups of students are responsive. In this context, we study the preference revelation game induced by the student proposing deferred acceptance mechanism. We show that the acyclicity of the hospitals' preference profile (Romero-Medina and Triossi, 2013a) is a necessary and sufficient condition to ensure that the outcome of every Nash equilibrium in which each hospital plays a dropping strategy is stable.
Author(s): Tello Benjamín     


Summary: This paper examines how the 1990s capital account liberalization policy trend affected international capital flows, and tests a new hypothesis that the depth and efficiency of the domestic financial system impacts the efficacy of capital account policy. The paper exploits a recently published IMF database on financial development that spans the period 1980-2014 and includes both developing and developed countries. The results confirm that policy on average does not have a significant effect on gross capital flows, when controlling for other factors. I also find no effect on flows disaggregated by type and direction. However, interacting capital account policy and financial development, I do find that for financially developed countries, policy has the expected effect --policy openness leads to capital flows. The implication is that the effectiveness of capital account liberalization requires developing the domestic financial system.
Author(s): Ramsay Bush Georgia     


Summary: This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on FDI flows into the Mexican manufacturing sector during the period 2007-2015. Using a panel of manufacturing subsectors, we estimate a model by System GMM that includes domestic and external factors, as well as idiosyncratic (i.e. that affect manufacturing subsectors in a particular way) and aggregate (i.e. that affect all manufacturing subsectors in general) uncertainty measures as explicative variables. We also perform some simulations to quantify the effect of uncertainty on FDI flows. The main results show that uncertainty discourages FDI flows into the Mexican manufacturing sector. We also find that the idiosyncratic uncertainty measures are more important in explaining FDI flows than the aggregate uncertainty measures, with the exception of the global risk aversion index.
Author(s): López Noria Gabriela; Zamudio Fernández Juan José     


Summary: Using data of households approaching retirement in the U.S., I find that the Whites' median saving rates are 9 percentage points larger than the Mexican Americans' rates (ethnic gap) and than the African Americans' rates (racial gap). Two-thirds of each gap correspond to changes in asset prices and a third to households' active decisions. Quantile decompositions show that differences in income and education explain most of the active saving gaps. This implies that wealth inequality is not attributable to differences in the distributions of active saving rates conditional on socio-economic characteristics. When retirement assets are included, the racial but not the ethnic gap in total savings disappears. The results suggest that reducing disparities in income, education and pension savings would help to reduce wealth inequality.
Author(s): Dal Borgo Mariela     


Summary: This article combines data on trade flows with a novel construction of the distribution of skill in the population, based on the results from the International Adult Literacy Survey of the OECD, to evaluate the empirical importance of the distribution of talent as a determinant of the sectoral pattern of trade. It is found that both the mean and standard deviation of the distribution of skills are significant determinants of the pattern of trade. According to the results, cross-country differences in the distribution of skills explain more of the sectoral pattern of trade than differences in capital stocks and differences in indicators of a country's institutional framework.
Author(s): Cebreros Zurita Carlos Alfonso     


Summary: This paper studies the trade-offs that can arise between inflation targeting and financial stability objectives. We use a simple framework to conduct macroeconomic policy analysis under three strategies: (1) a benchmark case where monetary policy pursues traditional price stability objectives; (2) monetary policy leaning against the wind; and (3) a case of policy coordination between monetary and macroprudential instruments. We find that, under certain circumstances, having financial stability objectives as an additional macroeconomic policy increases the volatility of inflation. We identify cases in which the tradeoffs in terms of macroeconomic volatility between policy objectives create scope for improvement when monetary and macroprudential policies are coordinated. These improvements are generally larger when financial shocks are the main driver of macroeconomic fluctuations.
Author(s): Roldán-Peña Jessica; Torres-Ferro Mauricio; Torres García Alberto     


Summary: This paper gathers and systemizes self-reported information about exchange rate flexibility and FX regulation in Latin America and the Caribbean for a period of twenty years beginning in 1992. The results show that, in countries in which the use of limits, liquidity and reserve requirements on FX positions was more common, the frequency of use of these instruments was particularly high during the transition towards more flexible exchange rate regimes. The exception refers to economies with a long tradition of financial dollarization in which the prudential policies were more spread out over time, possibly due to countercyclical adjustments of the regulatory instruments. Along these lines, policymakers reported that the first goal in using the regulation was to reduce currency mismatches, but, in the flexible regimes that were adopted during the 2000s the instruments were also used to dampen volatility in the exchange rate.
Author(s): Tobal Martín     


Summary: This paper applies a novel approach to study the impact of different shocks on the price level. It uses a classical dichotomy model with monetary policy regime shifts at known dates. First, there was a regime dominated by money, afterwards a regime driven by the exchange rate and a third one with inflation targeting. The result is a CVAR with constant long-run parameters but regime-dependent adjustment coefficients. This overcomes the challenge of explaining, within a single theoretical framework, inflation dynamics in Mexico since the country abandoned the gold standard. The model encompasses known results, offers new insights and clarifies decades-old debates on key aspects of the inflationary process such as inertia, the role of money, the exchange rate pass-through and the impact profile of other variables. The model proposed here is very parsimonious, it does not require inflation lags nor dummy variables. It also displays a very good pseudo out-of-sample forecasting performance.
Author(s): Garcés Díaz Daniel     


Summary: In this paper we use manufacturing data on Colombian exports and bank financing to estimate the credit elasticity of exports. The data allows us to construct a supply side instrumental variable for the credit of manufacturers that we use to address a possible reverse causality problem. We find that access to credit produces a significant increase in the revenue of exporters, explained by the positive effect of credit on the trade margins. Likewise, we find that across manufacturers, the impact of credit on the margins varies by firm size. Medium-sized manufacturers use credit to increase their market reach, market penetration and product mix. The largest manufacturers use credit to increase their market reach, while the smallest manufacturers use it to expand their product mix.
Author(s): Roa Mónica; Molina Danielken     


Summary: In this paper we analyze the impact and persistence of shocks to global (push) and domestic (pull) factors on each component of the financial account for the Mexican Balance of Payments at the highest degree of disaggregation, including investment by foreign residents in Mexican public and private sector securities, as well as investment by domestic residents in foreign securities. To this end, we estimate impulse response functions from vector autoregressive models for the period 1995-2015. We find that an increase in the foreign interest rate leads to lower portfolio investment, particularly in Mexican public sector securities. An increase in global risk generates lower portfolio investment, particularly in private sector securities. Foreign investors respond to a higher extent to foreign interest rate and liquidity shocks compared to domestic investors.
Author(s): Ibarra-Ramírez Raúl; Téllez León Elizabeth